Tag Archives: Nobel Prize

Nobel Prize Winners 2014

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The Nobel Prize in Physics 2014 was awarded jointly to Isamu Akasaki, Hiroshi Amano and Shuji Nakamura “for the invention of efficient blue light-emitting diodes which has enabled bright and energy-saving white light sources”.

Read more about how blue LEDs changed our world.
Read more about the detailed scientific information on the technology behind blue LEDs.

The Nobel Prize in Chemistry 2014 was awarded jointly to Eric Betzig, Stefan W. Hell and William E. Moerner “for the development of super-resolved fluorescence microscopy”.

Read more about nanoscopes allow us to see smaller things than ever before.
Read more about the detailed scientific information on the technology behind nanoscopy.

The Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine 2014 was divided, one half awarded to John O’Keefe, the other half jointly to May-Britt Moser and Edvard I. Moser “for their discoveries of cells that constitute a positioning system in the brain”.

Read more about how the brain works to experience our environment.

Images and text blurbs are ©2014 Nobel Media AB.

Nobel Prize in Chemistry 2013

Nobel-Winners

Congratulations to Martin Karplus, Michael Levitt and Arieh Warshel for being awarded the Nobel Prize in Chemistry 2013. They were jointly awarded for their development of multiscale models for complex chemical systems.

Below are some of the key papers published by the three awardees available through NTU Libraries:

1. A. Warshel and M. Karplus, J. Amer. Chem. Soc. 94, 5612, 1972.

2. A. Warshel and M. Levitt, J. Mol. Biol. 103, 227, 1976.

3. M. Levitt and A. Warshel, Nature 253, 694, 1975.

4. M. Levitt, J. Mol. Biol. 104, 59, 1976.

2013 Nobel Prize for Physics

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The Nobel Prize in Physics 2013 was awarded jointly to François Englert and Peter W. Higgs “for the theoretical discovery of a mechanism that contributes to our understanding of the origin of mass of subatomic particles, and which recently was confirmed through the discovery of the predicted fundamental particle, by the ATLAS and CMS experiments at CERN’s Large Hadron Collider

The original key articles written by Englert and Higgs in 1964 can be accessed for free on APS:

Broken Symmetry and the Mass of Gauge Vector Mesons
F. Englert and R. Brout
Phys. Rev. Lett. 13, 321 (1964)

Broken Symmetries and the Masses of Gauge Bosons
Peter W. Higgs
Phys. Rev. Lett. 13, 508 (1964)

Articles by the 2012 Physics Nobel Prize winners

Serge Haroche and David Wineland shared the Physics award for devising ways to study the strange world of quantum physics, a realm in which reality often defies logic, as in the ability of one particle to be in two places at the same time, or for it to behave as a particle sometimes and as a wave at other times. It is a world so fragile that mere observation can destroy the quantum particles under study.

Serge Haroche has published extensively in Optics Communications and the Journal of Luminescence, while David J. Wineland has published in Chaos, Solitons & Fractals and Physics Letters A.

Here are some of Haroche’s and Wineland’s most cited articles free on ScienceDirect:

Strain-tunable high-Q optical microsphere resonator
Optics Communications, 145, (16) 1998, pp 86-90 – V.S Ilchenko, P.S Volikov, V.L Velichansky, F Treussart, V Lefèvre-Seguin, J.-M Raimond, S Haroche

Whispering gallery mode microlaser at liquid Helium temperature
Journal of Luminescence, 7677, 1998, pp 670-673 – F. Treussart, V.S. Ilchenko, J.F. Roch, P. Domokos, J. Hare, V. Lefèvre, J.-M. Raimond, S. Haroche

A beam of laser-cooled lithium Rydberg atoms for precision microwave spectroscopy
Optics Communications, 101 (56) 1993, pp 342-346 – M. Weidemüller, C. Gabbanini, J. Hare, M. Gross, S. Haroche

Superradiance triggering spectroscopy
Optics Communications, 32 (2) 1980, pp 350-354 – N.W. Carlson, D.J. Jackson, A.L. Schawlow, M. Gross, S. Haroche

Heterodyne detection of Rydberg atom maser emission
Optics Communications, 33 (1) 1980, pp 47-50 – L. Moi, C. Fabre, P. Goy, M. Gross, S. Haroche, P. Encrenaz, G. Beaudin, B. Lazareff

Decoherence of motional superpositions of a trapped ion
Chaos, Solitons & Fractals, 16 (3) 2003, pp 431-437 – C.A. Sackett, C. Monroe, D.J. Wineland

Spectroscopy of a single Mg+ ion
Physics Letters A, 82 (2) 1981, pp 75-78 – D.J. Wineland, Wayne M. Itano

The Nobel Prize in Chemistry 2012

The Nobel Prize in Chemistry 2012 was awarded jointly to Robert J. Lefkowitz and Brian K. Kobilka “for studies of G-protein-coupled receptors”.

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Watch Prof Robert Lefkowitz celebrating the 2012 Nobel Prize in Chemistry.

You can read about articles on the prize winners’ works below:

Buchen, L. (2011) Cell signalling caught in the act, Nature 475:273–274.

Buchen, L. (2011) It’s all about the structure, Nature 476: 387–390.

Williams, R. (2010) Robert Lefkowitz: Godfather of G Protein-Coupled Receptors, Circ. Res. 106:812–814.

The Nobel Prize in Physics 2012

This year, the Nobel Prize in Physics has been awarded jointly to 2 physicists in the field of quantum optics, Serge Haroche and David J. Wineland, for independently inventing methods for measuring and manipulating individual particles while preserving their quantum-mechanical nature, in ways that were previously thought unattainable.

Through their ingenious laboratory methods Haroche and Wineland together with their research groups have managed to measure and control very fragile quantum states, which were previously thought inaccessible for direct observation. The new methods allow them to examine, control and count the particles.

Their methods have many things in common. David Wineland traps electrically charged atoms, or ions, controlling and measuring them with light, or photons.

Serge Haroche takes the opposite approach: he controls and measures trapped photons, or particles of light, by sending atoms through a trap.

You can read more about their work here: Particle control in a quantum world

Can the Nobel Prize winners be predicted?

Well, that is what Thomson Reuters is trying to do! Using proprietary data from Web of Knowledge, Thomson Reuters identifies influential researchers in the fields of physics, chemistry, physiology or medicine, and economics. According to Thomson Reuters, by virtue of their scientific achievements and the acclaim of their peers as measured by citations, these researchers have shown themselves to be “of Nobel class.”

How well has Thomson Reuters performed? See the results at Hall of Citation Laureates.