Systematic Reviews – An Introduction & Simple Guide
What are systematic reviews?
Source: [Cochrane]. (2016, January 28). What are systematic reviews?. [Video File]. Retrieved from https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=vhitDGfO8qU
Here are other supporting videos from OvidWoltersKluwer on systematic reviews in EBHC.
Video 1: The Role of Systematic Reviews in Evidence-Based Healthcare (EBHC)
Source: [OvidWoltersKluwer]. (2015, October 6). The Role of Systematic Reviews in Evidence-Based Healthcare. [Video File]. Retrieved from https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=vhitDGfO8qU
Video 2: Step 1 in a Systematic Review
Source: [OvidWoltersKluwer]. (2015, October 6). Step 1 in a Systematic Review. [Video File]. Retrieved from https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=lfO5yB9EoJU
Video 3: Step 2 in a Systematic Review
Source: [OvidWoltersKluwer]. (2015, October 6). Step 2 in a Systematic Review. [Video File]. Retrieved from https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=Ky4bU94dZnY
Video 4: Step 3 in a Systematic Review
Source: [OvidWoltersKluwer]. (2015, October 6). Step 3 in a Systematic Review. [Video File]. Retrieved from https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=MEBal2QgH7c
Here are some useful websites to help you in your scholarly project.
For Systematic Review and Meta Analysis (click here)
- RevMan: Systematic Review from Cochrane Collaboration, free for academic use, but support is only for registered Cochrane authors
- SRDR (AHRQ): Systematic Review Database Repository from Agency of Healthcare Research & Quality
- MetaLight: EPPI Centre, free
- CMA (Comprehensive meta analysis): description
- Work learning research effect size calculator
- Practical meta analysis effect size calculator (Campbell Collaboration)
- Bibliographic database software
When using databases:
(1) Medline – OVID (EBM Reviews – Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews 2005 to November 23, 2016)
- For example: Type the search sentence – respiratory distress in neonates
- Select the systematic review title: Positive end expiratory pressure for preterm infants requiring conventional mechanical ventilation for respiratory distress syndrome or bronchopulmonary dysplasia.
- Read and review
- Watch Online self-paced tutorials on how to use Cochrane Library
- See ppt slides on how to use Cochrane Clinical Answers
How do you report the use of systematic reviews?
This is where you search for evidence
- Review Resources for Evidence-Based Practice: The 6S Pyramid (Source: McMaster University Health Sciences). Use the 6S Pyramid and map your search results from selected databases
- When reporting the use of systematic reviews, the PRISMA flow diagram needs to be completed. Use the PRISMA checklist as a reference.
How do you evaluate the quality of your article search?
You need to assess the quality of study by reviewing the following factors:
- Appropriateness of study design to the research objective
- Risk of bias
Other issues related to quality of study are:
- Choice of outcome measure
- Quality of reporting clinical findings
- Quality of the intervention
Use these critical appraisal worksheets to evaluate systematic reviews:
- Oxford Centre for EBM,
- Centre for Evidence-Based Medicine: Mount Sinai Hospital, University of Toronto
The consensus reporting guidelines for different study designs proposed by EQUATOR (http://www.equator-network.org/ ) are a useful starting point, but note these are guidelines for reporting of original studies, NOT for assessment of study quality.
STROBE (http://www.strobe-statement.org) also provides useful guidelines for good reporting of observational research, including checklists of items that should be included in this type of research.
This article by Sanderson, Tatt and Higgins (2007) provides a review of the wide range of tools used to assess study quality. It does not recommend any specific tool for general use, but lists the domains which should be include: (1) appropriate selection of participants (2) appropriate measurement of variables and (3) appropriate control of confounding, as well as considering design specific biases. You may need to develop your own quality assessment tool, but do seek advice on the best method of quality assessment for your review.
This article by The Cochrane Collaboration describes a tool they developed for assessing risk of bias in random trials
Watch these videos from Assoc Professor Terry Shaneyfelt from UAD, School of Medicine on how to perform a critical appraisal on systematic reviews
Video 5: How to Critically Appraise a Systematic Review: Part 1
Source: [Terry Shaneyfelt]. (2013, March 5). How to Critically Appraise a Systematic Review: Part 1. [Video File]. Retrieved from https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=NSUk5FLbJoY
Video 6: How to Critically Appraise a Systematic Review: Part 2
Source: [Terry Shaneyfelt]. (2013, March 6). How to Critically Appraise a Systematic Review: Part 2. [Video File]. Retrieved from https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=Ly__U-n4fiQ
Prepared by: Rebecca David, Senior Assistant Manager, Medical Library