All posts by Choo Ping Ying

Asst Professor Andy Hau Yan Ho – Best Oral Presentation Award

Asst Professor Andy Hau Yan Ho – 1st Place Winner of Best Oral Presentation Award at The Asia Pacific Hospice and Palliative Care Conference 2019

Congratulations to Asst Professor Andy Ho from Psychology for capturing the 1st Place Winner of the Best Oral Presentation Award presented at the Asia Pacific Hospice and Palliative Care Conference (APHC) on 4 August 2019. More than 300 abstracts were submitted to the conference and only 12 top rated abstracts were selected for oral presentation. Professor Andy’s work was deemed best among all submitted and presented works by 3 panel judges. His presentation, “Family Dignity Intervention (FDI) for advancing Holistic Care in Asia Palliative Care: Preliminary Findings from a Randomized Controlled Trial”, shared the exciting results of a novel psycho-socio-spiritual intervention for enhancing hope, spiritual wellness and quality of life among terminally-ill patients and their family caregivers in Singapore.

Asst Professor Andy Ho’s Reflection on the Award

“This award is dedicated to the many end-of-life care patients and family caregivers who have placed their trust in me and my team in sharing their most intimate stories of love, hope, struggles and resilience during life’s most vulnerable and precious moments; we are honored and humbled to have walked this journey with you. This award is also dedicated to my research team at ARCH (Action Research for Community Health) Lab for their tireless effort and deepest compassion in supporting and assisting patients and families facing dying, death and mortality. This research would not have been possible without the generous support from the Ministry of Education Academic Research Fund (AcRF) Tier 2 Grant (MOE-2016-T2-1-016). We will continue to develop innovative programmes and clinically robust interventions to empower and improve the lives of those challenged by life’s adversities.”

Asst Prof Andy Ho capturing the Best Oral Presentation Award.

Asst Prof Andy Ho and his research team (ARCH Lab) at APHC 2019.

Paul Victor Patinadan – Santander Researcher Mobility Award 2019

Paul Victor Patinadan – Santander Researcher Mobility Award 2019

Congratulations to Paul Victor Patinadan (PhD Student of Psychology) for winning the prestigious Santander Researcher Mobility Award, a collaborative accolade by the University of Surrey and Santander Universities presented at the Doctoral College Conference on 10 July 2019. The title of his oral presentation was “Understanding and Facilitating Dignified Death and Holistic End of Life Care”. The Santander Researcher Mobility Award is presented to promising specialist researchers in order to encourage international exchange and facilitate cross-border collaboration.

Paul’s reflection on the award:

“It was an honour and privilege to present my work at the University of Surrey Doctoral College Conference 2019. The thrust of the conference was “Bridging the Gap”, and the event achieved that objective exceedingly well. I met many international academics from all walks of life and across different disciplines. It was humbling to share in their knowledge, experience, wisdom, and struggles in initiating positive social change. I was heartened to have so many veteran researchers interested in the work I do, and I experienced a professional kinship that I am thankful to have discovered. I would like to extend my deepest gratitude to my mentor and supervisor Professor Andy Ho, and to my wonderful colleagues at ARCH (Action Research for Community Health) Lab of SSS Psychology, who continue to inspire and guide me every single day.”

Paul presenting his Dignity Research at the Doctoral College Conference 2019 at the University of Surrey, UK.


Dr. Hannelore Wass Cross Cultural Student Paper Award – Ms. Dutta

Dr. Hannelore Wass Cross Cultural Student Paper Award (2019) –

Ms. Oindrila Dutta

Our PhD student, Ms. Oindrila Dutta, was awarded the Dr. Hannelore Wass Cross Cultural Student Paper Award at Association for Death Education and Counseling (ADEC)’s 41st Annual Conference held in Atlanta. The title of her conference paper was “The Lived Experience of Bereaved Parents of Children with Chronic Life-Threatening Illness in Singapore”. Dr. Hannelore Wass Cross Cultural Student Paper Award is presented to an outstanding undergraduate or graduate paper dealing with a topic related to dying, death, loss and bereavement where there is an emphasis or concentration on cross-cultural aspects of the phenomena studied.

Our PhD student, Ms. Oindrila Dutta, and the director of ARCH lab, Dr. Andy Ho.
Ms. Oindrila Dutta’s Presentation

Here is Oindrila’s reflection on the award:

“It was a privilege for me to be able to share the stage with researchers whose works I have read and been inspired by. Both before and after the award ceremony, I had a chance to interact with many of them, and it was an unforgettable experience! More than anything else, it energizes me to do more meaningful and impactful work. I am thankful to the ADEC Awards Committee for this honor. I am also very grateful to have an amazing mentor like Prof Andy and a wonderful team to work with. Their unending support, mentoring and friendship is something I treasure. I hope we, as a team, can continue to showcase the work that we do to our fellow researchers and practitioners in other parts of the world and collaborate with them to bring more quality and sparkle into the lives of the people that we work with.”

Connecting with seniors through storytelling and art

Connecting with seniors through storytelling and art

by TOUCH Elderly Group

Connecting with seniors through storytelling and art

Caption: TOUCH senior Mdm Tan Siok Cheng, 77, and youth volunteer, Mr Fabian Foo, bonding over a craft session. (Photo Credit: Gabriel Goh, Stellar Photography, for ARCH Lab, Nanyang Technological University)

ARTISAN: Aspiration and Resilience Through Intergenerational Storytelling and Art-based Narratives – A Pilot Study by the Nanyang Technological University

Project ARTISAN – which stands for Aspiration and Resilience Through Intergenerational Storytelling and Art-based Narratives – is an intricately-structured and holistic multimodal intervention framework that builds resilience and creates meaningful connections between youth and seniors by bringing them together in museum and community spaces.

Over five weeks earlier this year, 34 pairs of youth and seniors embarked on a journey of inter-generational storytelling and creative art-making at the National Museum. They learnt about Singapore’s heritage, the relational bonds forged by our pioneers, the resilience they displayed while overcoming adversities, and the realisation of their dreams and aspirations.

The youth-senior pairs were then given the opportunity to reflect and share their personal stories of love, courage and resilience through artistic expressions and creative writing. Their art-based narratives were shared with members of the public during a series of mini community exhibitions held in May and June this year.

“The ultimate goal of Project ARTISAN is to strengthen social connections and relational bonds to combat isolation and loneliness, while promoting wellbeing and resilience for building a stronger and more compassionate Singapore,” stressed Dr Andy Hau Yan Ho, Assistant Professor of Psychology at Nanyang Technological University (NTU) and Principal Investigator of Project ARTISAN.

Bridging the generation gap through art
Mr Teddy Tan Hock Soon, 77, from TOUCH Senior Activity Centre in Yishun, was mesmerised by the exhibits at the National Museum of Singapore on 21 June. Accompanied by a youth participant from NTU, Mr Tan reminisced about his past, sharing eagerly about the significance of these items and how he came to know about them.

“I was so happy to see familiar artefacts from the past displayed at the museum! It brought back memories of my younger days,” said Mr Tan.

Caption: Mr Teddy Tan Hock Soon with youth volunteer Ms Ariel Pereira, posing with their art pieces

Caption: Youths with seniors from TOUCH Senior Activity Centre at Yishun proudly displaying their art exhibits

From discovering Singapore’s national heritage to exploring its hope and future, each session began with a guided museum tour, which started conversations between the youth and seniors. They then created their own artwork – together – using a range of art medium, facilitated by a trained artist or art therapist. After the guided art making, they presented their art pieces and shared their stories to the rest of the group.

Caption: Coming together to learn and connect

Youth participants from NTU, Nanyang Polytechnic and Ngee Ann Polytechnic provided positive feedback as they recounted good experiences of their time with the seniors.

“My partner was always very willing to help others. During the art making sessions, she often made flowers out of plastic bags to use them to decorate the art pieces we made. However, when one team struggled to complete on time, she offered them a few flowers of her own as a replacement,” said student volunteer Ms Denise Lim Ying.

Despite experiencing some language barrier, students noted how the aunties and uncles made an effort to interact with them. They were touched by their love and sincerity through their small exchanges.

“Once I started to open up, I began learning more about Aunty Mok Ah Mui. She is very wise and has a carefree personality – a trait I hope to model as I am quite the opposite,” said student volunteer Mr Amos Tan.

Exploring life experiences
Through Project ARTISAN, meaningful conversations ensued as both students and seniors exchanged notes on what they saw and remembered about Singapore’s cultural heritage. The students were amazed by the stories of antiques that were no longer in production.

Student volunteer Mr Fabian Foo described a particular art piece that he and his senior partner created called ‘Day and Night’. He explained that the piece illustrates the different lives they live as a youth and a senior.

“I learnt about the value of saving and how to spend my money wisely. I feel that this truly showed the different lives we have lived and the things we, the younger generation, have taken for granted,” said Mr Foo.

Participant Ms Violet Yeo from TOUCH’s Community Enablement Project (CEP) emphasised the importance of such programmes, citing it as a good medium for the elderly to explore their creativity.

Caption: Ms Violet Yeo (right) participating in a sharing session at an Ang Mo Kio void deck together with residents and youth participants

“A lot of seniors I have met often tell me they feel lonely. This project helps seniors to express themselves. It also gives them something to look forward to as they get the opportunity to interact with others,” said Ms Yeo.

Caption: TOUCH’s CEP participants with youth volunteers displaying their cityscape model featuring futuristic HDB flats and enhanced infrastructure using vibrant colours and recycled materials


A Date with Death

A Date with Death

By Rachel Chiu and Edwin Chan

Reposted from The Nanyang Chronicle .

As part of psychology module The Last Dance, 38 students participated in a funeral simulation on 19 Sep.

Thirty-eight bodies lay side-by-side and motionless on a cold, hard concrete floor, each covered with a white sheet. These rectangles of white were spread out across the foyer of the School of Humanities and Social Sciences building, a picture of calm and stillness.

Passers-by did a double take and stopped to silently observe the peculiar spectacle, while sombre music played in the background and eulogies were read aloud.

Amid the sea of white, boxes of colourful crayons were strewn on the ground and pairs of shoes were placed next to the bodies, waiting to be worn again. This was not a mass funeral in process.

The “dead” were students taking part in a 30-minute funeral simulation held on 19 Sep. Known as “I Died Today x NTU”, the event was a part of The Last Dance, a psychology module under the School of Social Sciences (SSS) that deals with death, dying and bereavement.

The module aims to encourage students to have conversations about death and mortality, which are often heavy, taboo topics in Singapore. Its funeral simulation, which was introduced last semester, aims to provide students with an immersive experience of death.

Breaking the stigma

“We do not talk about death enough due to its stigma in our culture,” said Dr Andy Ho, an assistant professor at SSS’ psychology department.

Dr Ho introduced the module in 2015 because he believed that it would ease students into the difficult topic and help them be more comfortable with discussing death openly.

If people do not think about or discuss death, they are often at a loss and do not know how to cope with their grief when a loved one dies, he said.

The 13-week course gives students a platform to discuss death through lectures, class presentations and experiential learning.

Although the module started three years ago, Dr Ho introduced the funeral simulation only last semester because he finally had a bigger team to assist him in carrying it out.

He introduced the “physical experience” to enhance his students’ understanding of the topic, he said.

“This immersive experience is good for students because normally in the classroom there is no spiritual and physical engagement. The simulation allows them to express what’s on their mind, and hopefully it will translate to a deeper level of learning,” Dr Ho added.

During the funeral simulation, students lay down on long sheets of canvas paper, which represented their graves, while teaching assistants traced outlines of their bodies.

The students were encouraged to imagine the thought process they would have if they knew death was rapidly approaching, and express their thoughts by drawing within the outlines.

Final-year SSS student Oh Jarrad Gjern, 24, took the opportunity to reflect on his life. His drawings were inspired by his loved ones because they were the people he would miss the most if he were to die, he said.

“I drew a group of people, who are close to me, where my heart is located on the canvas sheet. The purple flower at the centre of my drawing represents my girlfriend as she loves both flowers and the colour purple,” he added.

While some students reflected on happy moments in their lives, there were others who focused on sad ones.

Ng Jing Xi, 24, was one of them. When sketching on his canvas, the final-year SSS student thought about regrets and unresolved questions that he would have if he died.

His body outline was divided into three sections: an orange one where he drew flowers, a blue one where he drew a heart, and a red section where he scribbled the word “why” repeatedly.

The bold orange represented the bright side of life and the flowers were achievements he had “planted”. Meanwhile, the heart symbolised the loved ones he was leaving behind and the colour blue illustrated his sadness at having to do so, he said.

“This red part represents frustrations, stemming from many questions like ‘Why am I leaving the world so early?’ and ‘Why did I have so little time to do what I wanted to?’ ” Ng added.

“I want to remove as many ‘whys’ as possible but I’m sure there will always be regrets left behind,” he added.

A cathartic experience

Despite the morbid topic, students like Oh found the experience to be enlightening.

Although the idea of simulating death was slightly uncomfortable, he was excited to participate in the funeral simulation and approached it with an open mind, Oh said.

“During the simulation, I realised that my death would not cause much disturbance to the world. This was comforting as I felt at ease knowing that my death would not burden others,” he added.

Besides the funeral simulation, students discuss issues such as palliative care and government policies related to death during the module’s lectures and class presentations. They also learn how to manage attitudes towards death.

These discussions have helped students such as S. Priyalatha, 23, change their mindset about death.

She is now able to have open discussions about death with her family, while tackling the topic with sensitivity, the final-year SSS student said.

“Conversations about death don’t always have to be sad. When you know what your family members want for their funeral rites and how you are going to be sent off, everyone will have proper closure,” she said.

The class has also helped her come to terms with the deaths of children whom she interacted with when she interned at the Children’s Cancer Foundation.

“It really affected me but this module opened my eyes to the topic of death, and how it happens to young children too. We always celebrate birth, but we often overlook death although it might happen at any time,” she added.

The module also allows students to reflect on their priorities and find their purpose in life, said Dr Ho.

Since death happens to everyone, we should all be prepared to deal with it, he added.

“If we want to drive a car, we can take driving lessons. If we want to fly a plane, we can take flying lessons. But we all die in the end, so why is there no one to help us deal with these emotions?”

Asst Prof Andy Ho receives prestigious award from ADEC

Asst Prof Andy Ho Receives Prestigious Award from ADEC

ADEC Academic Educator Award.jpg
Asst Prof Andy Ho (right) receiving his award at the 40th Annual Conference of the Association for Death Education and Counseling from Dr Romona Fernandez

Congratulations to Assistant Professor Andy Ho from Psychology on his Academic Educator Award from the Association for Death Education and Counseling (ADEC)! Asst Prof Ho, who was conferred the award at the 40th Annual Conference of the Association for Death Education and Counseling, is the first Asian recipient of this prestigious award. It is given to individuals who possess expertise in the field of dying, death and bereavement as demonstrated by advanced academic degrees, professional honors, awards and other major contributions.

Expressing his honour and humility for receiving the award, Asst Prof Ho said that he will continue to push forth the boundaries of Death Education and Thanatology Research. He will also further develop his life’s work in supporting and improving the lives of those facing loss, dying, death and bereavement.

“This award goes to all the patients and families that I have served, as well as to my family, my team, my mentors and teachers who have guided and supported me throughout this most inspiring and rewarding journey,” he added.

Awardees of this award must also have Excellence in Academic Teaching in Thanatology as demonstrated by judgement of peers, development of teaching materials, new courses and student evaluations; Scholarly Abilities as demonstrated by publication records and membership on editorial boards of academic and professional journals; as well as Continuing Growth as demonstrated by keeping abreast of changes and being at the cutting edge of developing ideas for the field.

ARTISAN: Fostering Aspirations and Resilience among Seniors

ARTISAN: Fostering Aspirations and Resilience Through Intergenerational Storytelling and Art-based Narratives

Project ARTISAN brings together seniors and youths on a journey of intergenerational storytelling and creative art-making under the skylights of museum and community spaces. ARTISAN – which stands for Aspiration and Resilience Through Inter-generational Storytelling and Art-based Narratives – comprise a holistic and intricately structured multimodal intervention framework that builds resilience and creates meaningful connections between the two generations. ARTISAN aspires to instill positive and impact changes in participants’ lives, with the ultimate goal of citizen empowerment for overcoming loneliness.

Over five weeks in the early summer of 2018, thirty-four pairs of youth-senior dyads engaged in a series of curated tours at the National Museum, to understand Singapore’s heritage, how people in the past have forged relational bonds, the resilience they displayed while overcoming adversities, and how they realised their dreams and aspirations. The youth-senior dyads were then provided with the opportunity to reflect and share their personal stories of love, courage and resilience through artistic expressions and creative writing. Their art based narratives were shared with members of the public during a series of mini community exhibitions held in May and June 2018, as well as through the ARTISAN Exhibition at the National Museum during the 2018 National Day Open House event on 9 August 2018.

A new grant proposal “ARTISAN: A National Study on Citizen Empowerment to Overcoming Loneliness through Arts and Heritage” has recently been submitted to the 2018 Social Science Research Thematic Grant. This new initiative aims to expand and implement the ARTISAN intervention framework across 6 major museums and galleries across Singapore via a Waitlist Randomized Controlled Trial with 400 seniors and 400 youths, while developing an ARTISAN Facilitator Training and Mentorship Programme to empower 200 health and social care professionals to advance societal-wide implementation of ARTISAN beyond research completion, as well as establishing a digital achieve named “Stories Connect” that house and disseminate the unique personal life stories of ARTISAN participants with educational tools to support local Heritage and Value Education programmes.

Project ARTISAN is a project developed by the Action Research for Community Health (ARCH Lab), Nanyang Technological University of Singapore in collaboration with the National Arts Council and the National Museum of Singapore.”

I Died Today: An Intimate Encounter with Mortality

I Died Today: An Intimate Encounter with Mortality

“I Died Today: An Intimate Encounter with Mortality” is an integrative experiential learning encounter that provides participants with the unique opportunity to reflect upon their own mortality and the meaning of life via a series of innovative and immersive activities. Through writing their own eulogies, taking part in their own living funeral, and engaging in an paint-brush autopsy, participants experienced firsthand how it is like to be ‘dead’, helping them to contemplate on the inevitability of death, and in turn bringing greater awareness and connectedness to their sense of spirituality and aliveness.

Participants laid down on symbolic paper “coffins”, covered from head to toe in white sheets. A short meditation on impermanence was carried out to prepare participants for reflective work. Next, accompanied by the live music of a violinist, participants experienced ‘being dead” while facilitators quietly read out their pre-written eulogies beside them. Participants were then “resurrected” and invited to use different art materials to express their cognitive and emotional processes while experiencing “death”. This integrative experiential learning encounter ended with a small group discussion where participants shared their experiences with each other. This event also served as a performance art exhibition that drew crowds of students and public to take interest in and engage in dialogues with the event facilitators about mortality and death awareness.

We would like to acknowledge and thank Media Corp Channel 8 (Hello Singapore) and Good Death for their reporting and coverage.


The 2017 Undergraduate Awards: Ms. Scarlet Leong Xin Min

The 2017 Undergraduate Awards in Asia Region: Ms. Scarlet Leong Xin Min

Ms. Scarlet Leong Xin Min, our recent psychology graduate of 2016-17 and Dr. Andy Ho’s URECA student, has been awarded The 2017 Undergraduate Awards – Asia Regional Winner in the Psychology – for her URECA paper, “Mindful-Art Making: A Pilot Approach for reducing burnout among hospice care workers”.  The Undergraduate Awards (UA) is the world’s largest international academic awards programme, recognising innovation and excellence at undergraduate level.  Cited as the ultimate champion for high-potential undergraduates, UA identifies leading creative thinkers through their undergraduate coursework and provides top performing students with the support, network and opportunities they require to raise their profiles and further their career paths, and to encourage greater participation in the future.

See below for Scarlet’s brief reflection on her award.

“Thank you Professor Andy for the privilege to reflect and journal my learning during my time as an undergraduate researcher at the ARCH Lab; with whom, I was able to embark on research topics of my interest and passion. I would also like to take this chance to also relay my gratitude to the rest of the very capable team at ARCH for being honest critics and raving fans during the 2 years embarking onto various research projects. As an affirmation of the good work that we do at ARCH, I am humbled to have one of our research projects – ‘Mindful Art Making – A pilot approach for reducing burnout among hospice care workers’ – recently been acknowledged at the Undergraduate Awards (UA). It is my pleasure to share that
not only was the paper shortlisted as a Highly Commended Entrant but it also was named as the Regional Winner (Asia) title for Psychology. This commendation bears testament to the relevant, high-quality and socially-conscious work that ARCH lab stands for.

The ‘Mindful Art Making’ paper stems from a larger research project helmed by Professor Andy. Although I was a Psychology major, I have always had an appreciation towards the study of visual arts and therefore leaped at the chance of knowing more about the ‘Mindful Art Making’ research project when I got to know about it. I then had the opportunity of being a part of the project in my third year as an undergraduate by embarking on it in conjunction with an NTU-based research initiative for undergraduates – URECA – that fulfils my academic credits towards graduation as well. It was a double blessing! However, data collection was
a tedious process. In retrospect, I believe it instilled a discipline and a rigor for research that also prepared me for my honours thesis project the following year. Yet, all the hard work seemed worth it when we witnessed the unfolding of significant results supporting the research hypothesis. All in all, the research process become not only extrinsically rewarding but intrinsically fulfilling, and I am therefore humbled to have our home-grown paper mentioned on an international platform.

To quote one of my favourite philosophers, Seneca, “If a man knows not to which port he sails, no wind is favourable.”. I urge you who are reading this to press on in your research journey despite choppy waters and foggy weather and to be amongst wise counsel who’ll guide you nearer to your destination. To God be the glory!”

From Left to Right: Scarlet Leong and Dr. Andy Ho

Day 3: Applying Dignity Therapy

Day 3: Applying Dignity Therapy

In dignity therapy, a completed generativity document is passed to the patients so that they can share it with their loved ones. This helps to create a conversation between patients and their family members before the patient’s death. As mentioned in the previous blog entries, dignity therapy provides a platform for individuals to explore their existential achievements and express heart-felt messages to family members or other significant individuals. What happens when the patient does not have a designated recipient for the generativity document?  As Katherine said, “Sometimes people engage in dignity therapy just because they wanted to experience the journey.” The gist of dignity therapy is to provide a platform for patients to review their lives and they do not have to dedicate the document to a specific person per se.

Dr. Lori brought up an extremely important point when it was nearing the end of the training workshop: when we are conducting dignity therapy, we may tend to focus on patients’ lives before they were diagnosed; that may potentially imply that patients are more “valuable” when they were well. Thus, it is crucial to be mindful of our personal biases and acknowledge who patients are and where they are at.

Though dignity therapy question protocol is generally used to promote therapeutic alliance where patients feel they are being treated as a person, it can be adapted in various settings with a tweak in how questions are being asked. For instance, the same protocol had been used in family setting to initiate heart-to-heart conversations between patients and family members without the presence of a dignity therapist; this process was identified as helpful and has been termed as “dignity talk”. Our FDI study has also adapted the question protocol into Asian context, with additional element on family connectedness in reflection of the culture. Stay tune to our website for more updates!

At the end of the training workshop, a treasure box was passed around and we were each invited to take one piece of paper from the box. It was a parting gift made of quotes from patients who have received dignity therapy in the past. Some of the quotes belong to patients who have gone home, and some belong to patients who are still living. Regardless of which, we (referring to the facilitators and workshop attendees) now carry them with us.

The treasure box filled with quotes from patients who have participated in dignity therapy.

It was indeed a fruitful journey traveling to Winnipeg to attend the Dignity Therapy Training Workshop. Though dignity therapy is initially used in palliative end-of-life care setting, its effectiveness and empirical support have sparked great research interests to adopt this therapy across various settings and cultures. Our FDI study is first ever attempt to expand dignity therapy into the Asian context. Informed by a rigorous body of empirical research that examined the meaning and constructs of dignity in Asia palliative care, we are incorporating a number of family-focused and cultural-specific elements into the therapeutic process and question protocol. When one of the training workshop participants asked Dr. Harvey whether he has ever anticipated dignity therapy to draw on such great interest in healthcare and research settings, he humbly said no, yet, such interest should not come as a surprise given the potential benefits dignity therapy offers to patients and families.

It has been a week since I returned from Winnipeg, but I vividly remember Dr. Harvey’s and other dignity therapists’ facial expressions as they were sharing their experiences interacting with patients and family members; there were signs of tears in their eyes reflecting the light from ceiling lights overhead, their faces flushed pink and their gazes wandered into the distant past as they were recalling their memories. Those expressions reflected the mixed feelings they each had in remembrance of the patients and family members they have encountered in the past and present. In my eyes, taking up the role as a dignity therapist and engaging in the therapy process with patients and family members could be one of the significant memories in the facilitators’ lives; I find that beautiful and I wish to embark on similar journey with our FDI research. At the end of my life, I know being part of FDI study and building rapport with the patients and family members will definitely be one of the most significant memories I’ve had. This marks the end of my sharing on my dignity therapy training experience and learning outcomes, but it also signifies the beginning of our FDI journey. Stay tune!

From left to right: Ping Ying (myself), Dr. Harvey Chochinov, and Geraldine