Navigating Through the Bulls and Bears on the Web: Balancing Information Literacy Skills and Self-Efficacy

Raging Bull
Authors: Boren Ang, Lam Zhao Yao, Pamela Chan Ting Jun & Teo Jion Chun
Supervisor: Asst Prof Debbie Goh Pei Chin

Young investors increasingly turn to the Internet for financial information. This paper analyses the empirical components of information literacy skills and self-efficacy in information use through a cross-sectional study of young investors in Singapore. Their information literacy and self-efficacy levels were also analysed across various income groups, gender and investing experience. This study fills in the literature gap by assessing the relative importance of each predictor variable on using quality financial information online.

“Research showed that young adults, many of whom are non-professional investors, depend more on financial information obtained from the mass media such as newspapers, television and the Internet. Information sources such as industry publications, financial statements of companies, auditors’ and brokerage firms’ reports were found to be too complex, difficult to comprehend or expensive. As such, using inaccurate financial information is risky as it may cause investors to incur losses in their investments.”


Image Credit: Raging Bull by Simon Morris (

Little Captains at Play: A Campaign for Unstructured Play towards a More Balanced Childhood among Preschoolers in Singapore


Authors: Claire Yeoh Su-En, Lau Kwee Fang, Soh Huiting Madeline & Tan Xiang Wei
Supervisor: Dr Yeoh Kok Cheow & Mr Stephen Robertson

Little Captains at Play is a public communications campaign which looks at unstructured play among pre-schoolers in Singapore. Targeted at parents with children aged 3 – 6 years old, the campaign aims to address the need for holistic development by utilising parents’ stories to encourage self-reflection and discussion. Supported by expert opinions and a range of online and offline engagement strategies, the campaign employed a three-pronged approach to educate, inspire and empower parents to provide their children with more opportunities for unstructured play.

“Unstructured Play is open-ended, child-initiated and has no specific learning objectives. For example, a child chooses art materials to draw whatever he wants.”

太阳雨 – Sunny Rain

Author: Chew Guancheng
Supervisor: Mr Seah Chang Un

James is the protagonist of the story. He suffers from anxiety disorder and the struggle he faces is compounded by his introverted nature. Despite that, he can be fully relatable to those who aren’t too quick to judge. He represents those who don’t thrive in a rigid system, and those who seek to be understood by society. The story also focuses on family ties and the importance of creating a positive environment of effective communication and acceptance.

“We have become a society quick to judge and not to compliment, the comedic relief of this film stems mostly from the stereotype of this non-complimenting culture.”


Image Credit: Singapore by hermitsmoores (


Effects of Spiral of Silence and Message Civility on Modes of Opinion Expression on Facebook

Authors: Alex Zhang Meng Ren, Ko Sheng Wei Jeremy, Low Wei Xiang & Tan Su Yi Kay
Supervisors: Asst Prof Natalie Pang & Asst Prof Shirley Ho Soo Yee

This study investigates aspects of Spiral of Silence theory and message civility in the social networking site, Facebook. Social media now also allows for more forms of opinion expression than before. Facebook, for example, allows users to click ‘like’ on posts and comments, as well as share content with just the click of the mouse. These new modes of expression could allow for content on social media to go viral easier and quicker than in traditional settings, where expression is mainly restricted to written or spoken words. This fast-growing phenomenon has important repercussions, including its potential impacts on social cohesion in Singapore.

“Noelle-Neumann’s Spiral of Silence (SOS) theory proposes that before individuals decide to express their opinions publicly, they will compare their personal opinions with the opinion climate in the public sphere. If individuals perceive their opinions as congruent with the opinion climate—in other words, they hold a majority-held opinion—they are likelier to express them. However, if their opinions are incongruent with the opinion climate, making them part of the minority, they are likelier to remain silent.”


Image Credit: Shhh… by Sarah (


Authors: Liu Jiahui Cindrey, Leong Pei Shan Dorothy, Lim Jia Ying Felicia & Liew Kern Yoong Gwyneth
Supervisor: Ms Nicole Lorraine Draper

(Im)perfect is a documentary short that draws attention to Singaporean youths’ concept of beauty, the transient and unreliable nature of beauty trends, and the danger of succumbing to media influence and social pressure. The film advocates the need to embrace one’s own individuality, a quality that is more valuable than blindly pursuing societal standards of beauty.

“We were inspired by some interviewees’ answers, and the raw, natural beauty of the interview subjects in their most candid moments. Upon reviewing the footage, we were particularly taken by how attractive all 18 individuals were off and on camera, and yet surprised at how most of them did not recognise their own beauty, choosing to focus on their flaws.”

Project Turn One: Realising An Online Multimedia News Portal For TableTop Gaming in Singapore

Author: Ong Bing Fu Zackary
Supervisor: Asst Prof Andrew Duffy

Turn One Publications started out as a community driven publication, whereupon members of the community were invited to write articles related to the miniature tabletop hobby. The issue were published digitally in pdf format and available for free download. However, due to lack of interest in writing, the publication released only one issue before dying out. Since its failure, its creator has looked into some of the mistakes made and has endeavoured to learn and correct these mistakes, so as to re-launch the news portal. The project chronicles the re-launching of Turn One.

“I have observed a hobbyist who considers his hobby group his closest friends during his wedding, despite a 10 year age gap between him and his best man. I have also observed foreigners able to connect with locals after moving into the country a few weeks ago, such that locals do not hesitate to ask him to join their teams during competitive events. The passion for tabletop wargaming connects these individuals together.”

Ugly Singaporeans

Future City
Author: Vivienne Chang Wei Ling
Supervisor: Mr Seah Chang Un

‘Ugly Singaporeans’ is a Singaporean sitcom featuring Singapore with a futuristic twist. It is the year 2023, Singapore is now divided into the East End, where foreigners and rich locals live, and the West End, home to the working-class Singaporeans. Ben is a journalist for the East End Times. His editor has a big assignment for him: locate the last surviving one-dollar ice cream cart in West End. Ben is all wound-up in pursuit of this lead, but the catch is – this source belongs to 26-year-old Mystabel Jelical Lee, an attractive reporter for the East End News Network. His job is to ensure that she finds this ice cream cart and returns to East End safely. Ben doesn’t want to play nanny to Mystabel and tries to shake her off. But she remains determined to set foot in West End.

“I have lived in this fictional alternate-reality world of my characters for the past few months, and it’s a bittersweet feeling now that it’s come to the end of this project. I don’t think these characters will be going anywhere, though. It has become habitual now, that whenever I notice a funny or interesting situation around me, I’d substitute my characters into the same situation and see how that plays out.”


Image Credit: Future City by Sam Howzit (

从“心”认识特殊教育 (Special Education: Matters of the Heart)


Authors: Cindy Peh Lee Ji, Lin Liying & Teo Sijia
Supervisor: Prof Hao Xiaoming

Special education has always received less attention from the public, as compared to mainstream education. Even till today, there is still a lack of public awareness of what it is, and what goes on within the special schools. Parents of special needs children are, unsurprisingly, most concerned about their children’s future. They worry about whether their children can fend for themselves in Singapore’s highly competitive job market. Those with children who have more severe disabilities wonder if their children will be able to receive adequate care when they grow up. Teachers, especially those who have watched the children grow under their guidance, care deeply for them as well. They too hope that the hard work they have put in to train the children will help them lead independent and fulfilled lives. This Chinese feature writing project focuses on the special education sector in Singapore. Through interviews with teachers, principals, parents, students and other people involved in the sector, it aims to provide a balanced and deeper look into what goes on within this often overlooked area of education.

“Before beginning this project, we had a hazy picture of what special education is like. Along our journey, we found that many others were in the same situation as us – we know that special schools exist, and that some children with certain disabilities study there. But we don’t know any deeper than that; we don’t know the effort special education teachers put in for their work, nor the worries and struggles of the parents, or the students’ admirable desire to learn, and make a better life for themselves.”

The Happiness Revolution: The Best Gift for Your Child


Authors: Lee Jing, Lim Hui Lian Joyce & Yap Jiamin
Supervisors: Mr Tim Clark & Asst Prof Liew Kai Khiun

The Happiness Revolution: Best Gift for Your Child, is a communication campaign that champions the attainment of positive mental wellbeing amongst children. Targeted at parents of children aged 7-12, this campaign aims to raise awareness on the importance of children’s social and emotional intelligence as well as ability to solve problems as components towards lasting happiness. Through interactive platforms such as roving outreaches and lunchtime talks, the campaign strives to engage parents in conversations about their current steps to improve their child’s mental wellbeing.

“Our primary motivation for adopting this cause was based on personal experiences as children, in our social and emotional experiences in school and at home. We embarked on the campaign because we strongly believed in the need to change the way parents perceive what contributes to a child’s development and happiness.”

For the Love of Books! Campaign

Authors: Lestarini Saraswati Hapsoro, Sneha Gururaj, Wong Chooi Sean & Zhou Zhuangyu
Supervisors: Mr Tim Clark & Asst Prof Daniel Keith Jernigan

Targeted at young adults aged 18 to 30, this campaign aimed to broaden the reading scope of these individuals by reconceptualising leisure reading as an entertaining activity and by increasing the accessibility of reading to incentivise more individuals to pick up the habit. The campaign had three key aspects, which included a social media engagement plan, outreach efforts in tertiary institutions and café establishments, as well as a grand finale event.

“Students in Singapore are mainly academic-oriented and often associate books and reading with learning, school work, school projects, and passing examinations. Only 41.4% of the students read for relaxation and 38.2% indicated reading as a hobby. The NOP World Culture Score (2005) also revealed that reading is more prevalent in some countries across the Asia Pacific with India, Thailand and China ranking as the top 3.”

A Disordered Perspective

To eat or not to eat

Authors: Poon Jing Han & Yu Zhenghui
Supervisor: Ms Lau Joon-Nie

This is an audio documentary detailing the life of people with eating disorders and their experiences going through such an ordeal. The question here is about how a person can survive an eating disorder and whether a person is able to walk out of the disorder completely. The documentary also looks at the types of medical help in Singapore and how accessible they are for eating disorder patients seeking help to recover. Through this project, the authors hopes to spread awareness about how serious a problem an eating disorder is and what repercussions it can have on an individual’s health, emotional well-being and social life. Another objective is to give hope to people struggling with eating disorders that they can, through the experience of another, find the strength to seek help and recover.

“The glorification of overly thin women on the media has been perceived as one of the main reasons why young people nowadays are increasingly obsessed with the need to be thin. However, that is not the only factor behind the rise in the number of eating disorders… Many people use food as a way to cope with their stress either through suppression of their appetite or over-eating.”


Image Credit: To eat or not to eat? by daniellehelm (

Screensavers: For Healthier Digital Kids


Authors: Marlene Tan Yiting, Ng Pin Li & Pek Kai Le Charis
Supervisors: Asst Prof Shin Wonsun & Dr Yeoh Kok Cheow

Screensavers is a public information campaign to nurture healthier digital kids. The campaign aims to educate parents and their children who are between the ages of 6 and 12, on effectively managing the use of digital technology. The campaign’s key message and screen tips, with an emphasis on child’s well-being, were conceived from the primary and secondary research conducted prior to the campaign. Campaign outreach activities were formulated to convey the key and sub-messages of the campaign, particularly through active community engagement, with a focus on parent-child learning. Both online and offline platforms were utilized to expand reach to the target audience.

“Whether technology has an overall positive or negative impact is yet to be seen, but multiple studies have verified that the effectiveness of technology is largely dependent on the proper management of its use. This means balancing time spent on technology, and making sure that children are only exposed to the
‘appropriate’ type of technology, for their age.”

Give Blood A Chance: A Blood Donation Campaign for First-Time Donors


Authors: J Jeyaseelan, Muhammad Amin Bin Ruslan & Yeo Jialin Jolene
Supervisor: Ms Melina Chua

One of the key challenges faced by the Singapore Red Cross is the public perception that there is a sufficient level of blood for the country. As a result, the public feels that there is no pressing need for blood donors to step up. While there is substantial research on the different motivations that could push potential donors to donate blood, very few are in the context of Singapore or from the perspective of youth. Give Blood A Chance is the first-ever student-led campaign that aims to get youth to donate blood for the first time. One of the highlights of this campaign was the use of music to alleviate fear in donors.

“66,000 units of blood were collected in 2002, while 2012 saw more than 109,000 donations. Despite this improvement, there is an annual average of four instances where the stockpile of a certain blood type was dangerously reaching low levels over the past ten years.”


Image Credit: IMG_4410.JPG by jeremyfoo (

Not a Keyboard Warrior Campaign

Authors: Dawn Eng, Chow Aiyan, Jeraldine Phneah Jialin & Kwang Shuwen
Supervisor: Asst Prof Fernando Paragas

Not A Keyboard Warrior is a campaign which aims to educate young people on the perils of inappropriate Internet behaviour, as well as debunk the practice of cyber aggression as a social norm. Though Social Networking Sites (SNS) usage has been proven to be beneficial for the users in terms of social communication, the increased usage have also brought about some negative consequences – an increment of cyberbullying activities being one of the most prevalent issues. Local netizens also give in to their emotional impulses easily. Online aggression has inevitably become such a prevalent problem that Singapore’s leaders are beginning to sit up and take notice.

“We define cyber aggression as follows: Behaviours that shall include, but are not limited to, having no respect to one another, abusing fellow citizens, making false statements and/or being inconsiderate to one another online.”

Role of Feedback and Motivational Climate in Promoting Exercise Among Children

Microsoft Word - FINALFINAL.docx

Authors: Ang Kian Boon Eugene, Ho Jia Yu Carrie, Lim Ping Hui & Low Weisheng Melvin
Supervisors: Assoc Prof May O. Lwin & Asst Prof Shirley Ho Soo Yee

This study focuses on using communicative components in a digitally-mediated environment (through digitally assisted physical gaming, or exergaming) as an intervention method to promote leisure time physical activity and encourage exercise behaviour. While in the past, other research explored various factors that impact the effectiveness of a health intervention programme, this research taps on the self-determination theory and other behavioural theories to investigate communication components that are most salient in an intervention programme involving exergaming – feedback type and motivational climate.

“Current efforts by various stakeholders to battle childhood obesity are largely focused on cultivating healthy dietary habits or encouraging outdoor physical activities. These are insufficient as the main crux of the problem still lies with children’s technology overuse, resulting in sedentary behaviour. Health communication researchers have pointed out the need to decrease sedentary behaviour by limiting the amount of time people spent in front of the television or computer.”