This picture taken by Olivier Grunewald shows a glowing crater inside Kawah Ijen volcano in East Java, Indonesia. The glow is the reaction of sulphur particles oxidising when exposed to air producing blue flames that glow in the darkness. As also mentioned in the article by Chau Tu in Science Friday, Jul 03 2014 Kawah Ijen has the largest acidic natural crater lake in the world and the sulphur harvested by miners is of the purest form which is used in the food and chemical industry. Hungry for more pictures? – Take a look at this series of images posted on youtube by Olivier Grunewald.
volcanic eruption forms new island near Japan from The National Geographic
On 21st November 2013, a volcanic eruption off the cost of Japan formed a new island south of Tokyo. The video shows an island about 200 metres in diameter appearing next to an island chain known as Nishinoshima. These islands are part of the seismically active Pacific “Ring of Fire”.
– from The Independent reported by Rob Williams
It’s not as peaceful as it looks under west Antarctica (Image: Michael Studinger/NASA)
From the New Scientist http://www.newscientist.com/article/dn24589-seething-volcano-buried-under-antarcticas-ice.html#.Uo7acsv2OM9
It has been known that volcanoes have existed beneath the glaciers in Antarctica but for the first time an active volcano was spotted beneath the ice sheet of west Antarctica as reported in New Scientist. A network of seismometers installed by in Marie Byrd Land in western Antarctica have detected 2 tremors; the nature of these tremors suggesting that they could be due to earthquakes beneath active volcanoes. To find out more, read the full article published in journal Nature GeoScience. [Please provide your network id/password for authentication when prompted.]
Mount Sinabung spews volcanic materials from its crater as seen from Karo, North Sumatra, Indonesia, Monday, Sept. 16, 2013. Thousands of people have been evacuated from their homes after the volcano erupted Sunday. (AP Photo/Binsar Bakkara)
Mount Sinabung spews volcanic materials from its crater as seen from Karo, North Sumatra, Indonesia, Monday, Sept. 16, 2013. (AP Photo/Binsar Bakkara) | AP
Mount Sinabung in western Indonesia, is among one of the 120 active volcanoes in Indonesia. It erupted on 24th October 2013, spewing not lava or debris but black ash. It has been dormant for three years with its last explosion in August 2010. Read more about this on the Huffington Post. To find more information on volcanic ash read:-
1. Volcanic Ash by Heiken, Grant
2. Learn from 2010 Eruptions at Merapi and Sinabung Volcanoes in Indonesia
3. Traversing nature’s danger zone: getting up close with Sumatra’s volcanoes
This picture was taken by photographer and volcano–chaser Martin Rietze. The photo shows Sakurajima Volcano, on the southern tip pof Kyushu island, Japan. It is an active volcano whose record-breaking 1914 eruption sent lava flows across the island connecting it to the mainland.
So why does lightning accompany the eruption? As reported in New Scientist, it is hypothesized that the volcanic ash is electrically charged and it is the charge separation that causes the lightning strike. Read more..
There’s plenty more you can find out about volcanoes, by reading/watching :
- Eruptions that Shook the World [E-book]
- The red volcanoes : face to face with the mountains of fire
- Volcano hell [videorecording]
- Volcanism and the Earth’s atmosphere [E-book]
It wasn’t lava or suffocating ash clouds that killed the people of Pompeii when Mt. Vesuvius erupted in AD79. Volcanologists discovered that it was a wave of pyroclastic flow which ‘cooked’ the flesh instantly even though the bodies remained intact.
An example of how volcanoes could be a silent killer is the Lake Nyos disaster in Cameroon, Africa. Lake Nyos which sits within a crater of an inactive volcano was disturbed by a landslide or an earthquake and more than 80 million cubic meters of carbon dioxide was released due to a ‘limnic’ eruption.
The article from BBC Science talks about four ways a volcano can kill..
Find related material on volcanoes at NTU Libraries:
1. In the shadow of Vesuvius
A Video from the National Geographic Society production about Mount Vesuvius and the effect of its eruptions on the lives of the two million people who live in its shadow.
2. Vesuvius : a biography
This book gives a scientific, cultural and historical perspective of Vesuvius.
3. Doomsday volcano
A DVD release of an episode of television program Explorer showing an international team of volcanologists diving into the belly of Santorini’s submerged caldera.
4. Mayon [videorecording] : the volcano princess
Documentary about how locals cope with living around the volcano in the Bicol region, Philippines and their experiences with natural disasters like lahars, pyroclastic flows and eruptions. This DVD is a product of collaborative effort between NTU and Philippine Institute of Volcanology and Seismology.
5. Eruptions that shook the world
Volcanologist Clive Oppenheimer explores rich geological, historical, archaeological and palaeoenvironmental records (such as ice cores and tree rings) to tell the stories behind some of the greatest volcanic events of the past quarter of a billion years.
6. Krakatoa : the day the world exploded, August 27, 1883
This books offers a new perspective on this event- the eruption led to an uprising in Java against western militancy.