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This guide is created by Melissa Man Pui Shan and maintained by Phoebe Lim Choon Lan.

This guide is designed to give you an introduction to acknowledging sources. It provides links to other guides that will give you step-by-step instructions and guidelines to follow for specific citation styles.

It is important to acknowledge your sources because plagiarism is a serious violation of the NTU Honour Code.

Components of acknowledgement

When you are presenting someone else’s writings, ideas, or creative works you must acknowledge the original source. Typically there are two components:


You must acknowledge that the writing, idea or creative work is not your own in the place where you mention it in your report or presentation slide. You can do this by indicating the author or creator’s name and the date of publication.

PowerPoint slide examples:



You must include a list of all of your sources at the end of your presentation or report. This list will give more detailed information about the source, including the title, format, and publisher information if available.

PowerPoint slide example:


Citation styles

In formal academic writing, there are specific guidelines for formatting your acknowledgement and list of references. Different subject areas have adopted different guidelines to suit their academic practices. If you need to follow a specific citation style, you may use one of these guides to help you format your citations:

Citation & style manuals

Guidelines for formatting your acknowledgement and list of references are based on citation manuals or style manuals. These manuals are the authoritative sources on citation style and provide guidelines for a variety of writing scenarios. The ADM Library collection has the following manuals:

Generating citations

The Library provides EndNote software which you can use to help create citations and reference lists. There are also free basic tools available online including:


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