Natural Degradation

  • Loss of Mangrove Forest


Development pressures such as damming up rivers to form reservoirs, canalization of steams and waterway, land reclamation and natural degradation such as coastal erosion have resulted in resulted in the reduction of mangrove forest. This results in the loss of mangrove forest and drive out species dependent on mangrove habitats.

  • Grassland Habitats


Grassland habitats have been cleared near the Singapore river to allow further development of urbanization. This is used to transform the surrounding area into a bustling city centre for commercial and banking activities (Corlett, 1992).

Grassland supports a specialized assemblage of natural wildlife such as birds and flora species, however these open country area are often targeted for development purposes as they are easily cleared and do not serve useful purposes.

  • Coral Reefs
  • coral_reef

Land reclamation along Singapore’s coast has decreased the coral reef cover by about 60%. Development pressures and coastal modifications continue to be the main threats to Singapore’s  remaining intertidal habitats. Sedimentation and water clarity issues stemming from coastal works also threaten the marine biodiversity in Singapore’s waters.

  • Freshwater Habitat

A large portion of freshwater habitats have been affected by development, and concretized with artificial banks. Changes in water quality due to pollution pose threats to the biodiversity of the freshwater habitats.



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