Applied Behavioural Analysis (ABA)
This is a model created by Scott Geller (1989, 2002) and this approach has three principles which are:
1. focus on observable behaviour
2. focus on external factors instead of internal factors
3. focus on behavioural reinforcement
The process of this approach is represented by the acronym DO IT:
Define the target behaviour (is the behavioural change for target feasible and effective?
Observe occurrence of behaviour in normal situations (what are the factors affecting this occurrence?)
Intervene to modify behaviour (what can we use to respond to these factors identified? e.g incentives, prompts, affordances)
Test effectiveness of the intervention (are the tools used to intervene working?)
Even though this approach focuses on external factors, it does not totally neglect internal factors. Geller believes that determinants of sustainable behaviour such as self-efficacy and sense of belonging should also be considered in implementing interventions. Actively caring for environment is also emphasized as being important for successful behavioural change.