Energy Conservation in Singapore


Another issue apart from pollution is energy conservation. As our energy resources are depleting, it is important for us to conserve energy. In Singapore where there are no fossil fuels, energy conservation is even more of an issue to us.


In April 2013, the Energy Conservation Act (ECA) took effect in Singapore. The Energy Conservation Act aims to provide an impetus to large industrial consumers to increase their energy efficiency and reduce the impact of their greenhouse gas emissions. Large energy consuming companies are also required to adopt energy management practices so that the government can look into their problems.


Mandatory Energy Management Practices. (n.d.). Retrieved on March 27, from

Ghadialy, S. (2014). Retrieved on March 27, from

Oil Refineries in Singapore


The oil industry in Singapore accounts for 5% of the gross domestic product (GDP).  Singapore is also one of the world’s top three export refining centres, accounting for 68.1 million tonnes of oil exports in 2007. Thus, it is important for us to look at the costs of these oil industries in the environmental aspect.



The oil refinery industry is one of the main sources of air pollution in Singapore, releasing SO2, NOX and PM2.5. According to NEA, refineries account for 71% of SO2 emissions. Singapore has set a limit to the level of emissions from these oil companies. The various government agencies are also working with these oil companies to improve the refinery processes and decrease SO2 emissions.


ENERGY INDUSTRY IN SINGAPORE. (n.d.). Retrieved on 27 March, from

Air Quality and Targets. (n.d.). Retrieved on 27 March, from

Cracking of Oil


Fuels made from oil mixtures containing large hydrocarbon molecules are inefficient. They do not flow easily and are difficult to ignite. Crude oil often contains too many large hydrocarbon molecules and are not enough small hydrocarbon molecules to meet demand.

Fractions that are produced by the distillation of crude oil can go through a process called cracking. This chemical reaction produces smaller hydrocarbons, including alkanes and alkenes.

There are a several types of cracking – Thermal Cracking, Catalytic Cracking, Hydrocracking etc.





Cleveland, C. (2013). Cracking. Retrieved March 22 from,

Freudenrich,C. (2001). How Oil Refining Works. Retrieved March 22 from,

Polymers and ethanol from oil. (n.d.). Retrieved March 22, from

Fractional Distillation of Crude Oil


Fractional distillation consist of a tall column is fitted above the mixture, with several condensers coming off at different heights. The column is hot at the bottom and cool at the top. Substances with high boiling points condense at the bottom and substances with low boiling points condense at the top. Crude oil is made up of different substances with different boiling points hence, these substances can be separated by fractional distillation.


The steps of fractional distillation:

  1. Heat the mixture of crude oil to a high temperature. (High pressure steam + 600 degrees Celsius)
  2. The mixture boils, forming vapor (gases); most substances go into the vapor phase.
  3. The vapor enters the bottom of a long column that is filled with trays. The trays have many holes in them to allow the vapor to pass through. They increase the contact time between the vapor and the liquids in the column and help to collect liquids that form at various heights in the column. There is a temperature difference across the column (hot at the bottom, cool at the top).
  4. The vapor rises in the column.
  5. As the vapor rises through the trays in the column, it cools.
  6. When a substance in the vapor reaches a height where the temperature of the column is equal to that substance’s boiling point, it will condense to form a liquid.
  7. The trays collect the various liquid fractions.
  8. The collected liquid fractions may pass to condensers, which cool them further.


Fuels from crude oil. (n.d.). Retrieved March 22, from

Freudenrich, C. (n.d.). Retrieved March 22, from

The Basic Products From Fractional Distillation. (n.d.). Retrieved March 22, from

Formation of Crude Oil


Crude oil, commonly known as petroleum is a liquid found in Earth’s crust and is made up of hydrocarbons, organic compounds and small amounts of metal.


Dead animals and plants in the sea drop to bottom of sea bed and build up on the sea bed

There is a mud layer and dead animal layer on top of the sea bed. The mud layer gradually turns to rock

The mud layer turns into rock layer and dead animal and plant layer turns into crude oil

The remains of animals and plants in the sea were buried under sand and rocks where decomposition will occur. During  decomposition, certain chemicals such as phosphorus, nitrogen and oxygen will be removed by tiny bacteria. This leaves behind the remains that are mainly made up of carbon and hydrogen. At the bottom of the ocean there is insufficient oxygen for the remains to decompose entirely. Hence, what we are left with is the raw materials for the formation of petroleum.  In addition, over millions of years, the heat and pressure, without air, convert the remains to oil. In this process, gas is also produced.

At an oil rig, production wells cut through to oil layer in the sea bed and draws oil to the surface

Today, oil companies drill down deep into the sea bed through the impermeable rock to obtain crude oil through the process of fractional distillation.


How crude oil was formed. (n.d.). Retrieved March 22, from

Petroleum formation. (n.d.). Retrieved March 22, from

Making crude oil useful. (n.d.). Retrieved March 22,

Team Questions Session (18th March)

4. The concerns of acid rain vary across the globe. Many countries in North America and Europe have websites dealing with acid rain. Either search to locate one(“Canada,acid rain”) or use these links to website in Canada , the UK or Europe. What are the issues in the country you selected? Does the acid rain deposition originate outside the borders of the country?

Eastern Canada

  • Acid rain affects lakes, forest, soils and wildlife populations and buildings
  • Many of the waters and soil lack natural alkalinity and hence, cannot neutralize acid naturally
  • Most of Canada landscape consist of hard rock and cannot neutralize the effects of acid rain

Implications to our society


Our energy supply comes mainly from fossil fuels, with nuclear power and renewable sources rounding out the mix. These sources originate mostly in our local star, the Sun.

This unit studies how the chemical industry applies key principles of physical chemistry in order to turn research ideas into profitable products without harming the environment.

An increasing share of future energy needs will be met by technologies now in the research or development phase.

Public and private research into technologies that could improve—or even completely change—our energy situation has been active for years. This tells unit explains how energy affects our quality of life in now and in the future.


  1. Emerging technologies. (n.d.). Retrieved March 18, 2015, from
  2. De Palma, B. (n.d.). Free Energy Implications. Retrieved March 18, 2015, from
  3. Society Quotes. (n.d.). Retrieved March 18, 2015, from

Why is it Important?


red_barrels2There is a growing dependence on increasingly scarce Middle Eastern oil as countries industrialized and urbanized. Essentials like oil, coal and natural gas becomes imperative to a nation’s development.


  1. Energy industry. (n.d.). Retrieved March 18, 2015, from
  2. Try Your hand at Futures. (n.d.). Retrieved March 18, 2015, from

Minutes log on video 2


Team members: Xiao Yong, Yan Mei, Celine Ow, Xin Minn, Daryl Chan, Candy Tay

 Team: Group 3, Charlie                                                                  Date: 12/3/2015

 Location: NTU South Spine

 Duration: 60 Minutes

Topics discussed (briefly)

  • Highlight main concepts of energy and its implications in our society (Concepts that has been used in our first video should not overlap with our second one)
  • Incorporate applicable and important concepts into our second video
  • Video discussion, organisation of roles and video planning
  • Emulate the success of our previous video while avoiding any possible shortcomings

Tasks to be done before the next meeting and who has been assigned/agreed on doing them

  • Xiao Yong: To have the video edited
  • Yan Mei: Update minutes of the current meeting and prepare video props
  • Candy: Pick up important concepts and plan video(Plot, roles and setting)
  • Celine Ow: Pick up important concepts and plan video(Plot, roles and setting)
  • Xin Minn: Pick up important concepts and plan video(Plot, roles and setting)
  • Daryl Chan: Pick up important concepts and plan video(Plot, roles and setting)

Plan of action

  • Celine, candy, xin minn and daryl to plan the video before we shoot
  • Celine, candy, xin minn and daryl to update the team on their plans
  • To accomplished a complete video by the end of the session
  • Yan Mei to update the minutes
  • Xiao Yong to update the blog and to upload the video

Implications to society

Introduction :
Chemistry and energy has become increasingly important and relevant in our daily life. Its uses and applications have established a strong implication and relationship with our society. Its presence in life is distinctive and huge.

Explanation :
In chemistry, Chemical energy is the potential of a chemical substance to undergo a transformation through a chemical reaction or, to transform other chemical substances.
The products of chemistry save energy by improving energy efficiency in our homes, offices and factories and by making cars and packaging more lightweight.
Chemistry innovations also enable the sustainable technologies that are revolutionizing the way we generate and store energy—solar cells, wind turbines, rechargeable batteries and more.

Chemical energy. (2015, February 6). Retrieved February 17, 2015, from
Energy. (n.d.). Retrieved February 17, 2015, from

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